Your Brain Hates You References

So much to my own surprise my talk a few weeks back at Cambridge Skeptics in the Pub went really well. Since then several people have asked me where they can find out more information regarding the things I talked about. Well, shameless self promotion alert, there is of course my book, Building your Skeptical Toolkit, which covers a great deal of the things in my talk. However, for those of you looking for more in-depth information, you will find a list of papers that I referenced as part of the talk listed below.

Most of these papers should be free to view online, but some of them may require a login of some sort to access. If there are specific papers you can’t access but really want to, please let me know and I will see what I can sort out. I will also update this list with any additional papers of interest that I come across on these topics.


Nees, M. A., & Phillips, C. (2015). Auditory Pareidolia: Effects of Contextual Priming on Perceptions of Purportedly Paranormal and Ambiguous Auditory Stimuli. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 29(1), 129-134.

Liu, J., Li, J., Feng, L., Li, L., Tian, J., & Lee, K. (2014). Seeing Jesus in toast: Neural and behavioral correlates of face pareidolia. Cortex, 53, 60-77.

Hadjikhani, N., Kveraga, K., Naik, P., & Ahlfors, S. P. (2009). Early (N170) activation of face-specific cortex by face-like objects. Neuroreport, 20(4), 403.

Dering, B., Martin, C. D., Moro, S., Pegna, A., & Thierry, G. (2011). Face-sensitive processes one hundred milliseconds after picture onset. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 5.

Berenbaum, M. (2005). Face time. American Entomologist, 51(2), 68.

Riekki, T., Lindeman, M., Aleneff, M., Halme, A., & Nuortimo, A. (2013). Paranormal and Religious Believers Are More Prone to Illusory Face Perception than Skeptics and Non-believers. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27(2), 150-155.

Hong, K., Chalup, S. K., King, R. A., & Ostwald, M. J. (2013, April). Scene perception using pareidolia of faces and expressions of emotion. In Computational Intelligence for Creativity and Affective Computing (CICAC), 2013 IEEE Symposium on (pp. 79-86). IEEE.

Sleep Paralysis

McNally, R. J., & Clancy, S. A. (2005). Sleep paralysis, sexual abuse, and space alien abduction. Transcultural psychiatry, 42(1), 113-122.

Cheyne, J. A., Newby?Clark, I. R., & Rueffer, S. D. (1999). Relations among hypnagogic and hypnopompic experiences associated with sleep paralysis. Journal of sleep research, 8(4), 313-317.

Cheyne, J. A., Rueffer, S. D., & Newby-Clark, I. R. (1999). Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations during sleep paralysis: neurological and cultural construction of the night-mare. Consciousness and Cognition, 8(3), 319-337.

Cheyne, J. A. (2005). Sleep paralysis episode frequency and number, types, and structure of associated hallucinations. Journal of sleep research, 14(3), 319-324.

Fukuda, K., Ogilvie, R. D., Chilcott, L., Vendittelli, A. M., & Takeuchi, T. (1998). The prevalence of sleep paralysis among Canadian and Japanese college students. Dreaming, 8(2), 59.

Denis, D., French, C. C., Rowe, R., Zavos, H., Nolan, P. M., Parsons, M. J., & Gregory, A. M. (2015). A twin and molecular genetics study of sleep paralysis and associated factors. Journal of sleep research, 24(4), 438-446.

Cheyne, J. A. (2003). Sleep paralysis and the structure of waking-nightmare hallucinations. Dreaming, 13(3), 163.

Cheyne, J. A. (2001). The ominous numinous. sensed presence and ‘other’ hallucinations. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8(5-6), 133-150.

De Jong, J. T. (2005). Cultural variation in the clinical presentation of sleep paralysis. Transcultural psychiatry, 42(1), 78-92.

Blackmore, S. (1998). Abduction by aliens or sleep paralysis?. Skeptical Inquirer, 22, 23-28.

And if you would like to find out if you have been abducted by aliens you can do so here.

False Memories

Loftus, E. F. (1997). Creating false memories. Scientific American, 277(3), 70-75.

Lynn, S. J., & Kirsch, I. I. (1996). Alleged alien abductions: False memories, hypnosis, and fantasy proneness. Psychological Inquiry, 7(2), 151-155.

Thomas, A. K., Bulevich, J. B., & Loftus, E. F. (2003). Exploring the role of repetition and sensory elaboration in the imagination inflation effect. Memory & Cognition, 31(4), 630-640.

Goff, L. M., & Roediger, H. L. (1998). Imagination inflation for action events: Repeated imaginings lead to illusory recollections. Memory & Cognition, 26(1), 20-33.

Garry, M., Manning, C. G., Loftus, E. F., & Sherman, S. J. (1996). Imagination inflation: Imagining a childhood event inflates confidence that it occurred. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3(2), 208-214.

Wade, K. A., Garry, M., Read, J. D., & Lindsay, D. S. (2002). A picture is worth a thousand lies: Using false photographs to create false childhood memories. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9(3), 597-603.

Lindner, I., Echterhoff, G., Davidson, P. S., & Brand, M. (2010). Observation Inflation Your Actions Become Mine. Psychological science.

Thomas, A. K., & Loftus, E. F. (2002). Creating bizarre false memories through imagination. Memory & Cognition, 30(3), 423-431.

Loftus, E. F. (2005). Planting misinformation in the human mind: A 30-year investigation of the malleability of memory. Learning & Memory, 12(4), 361-366.

Loftus, E. F., & Davis, D. (2006). Recovered memories. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol., 2, 469-498.

Loftus, E. F. (1997). Memory for a past that never was. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 6(3), 60-65.

Loftus, E. F., & Hoffman, H. G. (1989). Misinformation and memory: the creation of new memories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118(1), 100.

Hyman, I. E., Husband, T. H., & Billings, F. J. (1995). False memories of childhood experiences. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 9(3), 181-197.

Lindner, I., Schain, C., Kopietz, R., & Echterhoff, G. (2012). When do we confuse self and other in action memory? Reduced false memories of self-performance after observing actions by an out-group vs. in-group actor. Frontiers in psychology, 3, 467.

Rosa, N. M., & Gutchess, A. H. (2011). Source memory for action in young and older adults: self vs. close or unknown others. Psychology and aging, 26(3), 625.

Sharman, S. J., Manning, C. G., & Garry, M. (2005). Explain this: Explaining childhood events inflates confidence for those events. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19(1), 67-74.

Simons, D. J., & Levin, D. T. (1998). Failure to detect changes to people during a real-world interaction. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 5(4), 644-649.

Simons, D. J., & Chabris, C. F. (1999). Gorillas in our midst: Sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events. Perception, 28(9), 1059-1074.

Johansson, P., Hall, L., Sikström, S., & Olsson, A. (2005). Failure to detect mismatches between intention and outcome in a simple decision task. Science, 310(5745), 116-119.

Bridge, D. J., & Paller, K. A. (2012). Neural correlates of reactivation and retrieval-induced distortion. The Journal of Neuroscience, 32(35), 12144-12151.

Bridge, D. J., & Voss, J. L. (2014). Active retrieval facilitates across-episode binding by modulating the content of memory. Neuropsychologia, 63, 154-164.

Roediger III, H. L., & DeSoto, K. A. (2014). Confidence and memory: Assessing positive and negative correlations. Memory, 22(1), 76-91.

Talarico, J. M., & Rubin, D. C. (2003). Confidence, not consistency, characterizes flashbulb memories. Psychological Science, 14(5), 455-461.

Loftus, E. F., & Palmer, J. C. (1974). Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior, 13(5), 585-589.

Porter, S., Birt, A. R., Yuille, J. C., & Lehman, D. R. (2000). Negotiating false memories: Interviewer and rememberer characteristics relate to memory distortion. Psychological Science, 11(6), 507-510.

Heaps, C. M., & Nash, M. (2001). Comparing recollective experience in true and false autobiographical memories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27(4), 920.

Mazzoni, G. A., Loftus, E. F., & Kirsch, I. (2001). Changing beliefs about implausible autobiographical events: a little plausibility goes a long way. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 7(1), 51.

Morgan, C. A., Southwick, S., Steffian, G., Hazlett, G. A., & Loftus, E. F. (2013). Misinformation can influence memory for recently experienced, highly stressful events. International journal of law and psychiatry, 36(1), 11-17.

Shaw, J., & Porter, S. (2015). Constructing rich false memories of committing crime. Psychological science, 26(3), 291-301.

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